世界盃技術分析報告:死球扮重要角色
2018年11月20日15:56
法國奪得世界盃冠軍

  入球分析

  「The attackers looked very sharp: they created good opportunities and took them! The midfielders got forward in support and chipped in with goals。 There was an attacking mentality」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「進攻球員看起來非常犀利:他們創造了良好機會並把握了它們!中場球員向前支持並入球得分。這就是一種進攻意識」。

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  「In the knockout phase, the matches were more open」

  MARCO VAN BASTEN

  「在淘汰賽階段,比賽更加開放。」

  馬可・範・雲巴士頓

  「A lack of pressure on the man with the ball is the main factor that results in shots on goal。 That is the number-one reason for goals being conceded in football and it won’t change any time soon」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「對持球人缺乏施壓是導致入球的主要因素。這是入球的第一個原因,而且不會很快改變。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  There were some interesting stats in Russia and some new trends, too。 This was a tournament of goals: we saw 169 goals, only two fewer than the record for a 32-team World Cup, which was set at France 1998 and equalled at Brazil 2014。 Only one match out of 64 ended goalless (Denmark v。 France), compared to five in Brazil and seven at South Africa 2010。 We also saw more goals scored in the knockout stage than at the previous World Cup, up from 35 to 47。

  俄羅斯世界盃有一些令人有趣的統計數據,也有一些新的趨勢。這是一屆入球大賽:一共169個入球,僅比1998年法國和2014年巴西世界盃的記錄少兩個。64場比賽中只有一場比賽沒有入球(丹麥vs法國),相比之下,2014巴西世界盃有五場比賽沒有入球、2010南非世界盃有七場。我們也看到在淘汰賽階段的入球比上一屆多,上一屆有35粒,本屆世界盃上升到47粒。

  This indicates that teams played with a lot of attacking firepower and were very good at taking their chances。 The finishing was more clinical at Russia 2018, with teams averaging a goal from every 9.8 shots, three fewer than at South Africa 2010。 Breaking this down further, shooting efficiency from outside the penalty area improved dramatically: the average strike rate was a goal per 29 long-range attempts, compared to one in 42 at Brazil 2014。

  這表明球隊更崇尚進攻,也善於把握機會。2018俄羅斯世界盃的射門表現更為明顯,平均每9.8次射門進一球,比2010南非世界盃少3次。為了進一步打破這種局面,來自禁區外的射門效率顯著提高:平均29次遠射進一球,而2014巴西則為42次。

  There were several strong counter-attacking sides at this World Cup and coaches were clearly wary of the threat of being caught on the break。 One out of every two goals at Russia 2018 came from either set pieces or counter-attacks。

  在本屆世界盃上,有幾支強大的反擊球隊;顯而易見,教練們對反擊戰術的威脅性表現得很警惕。2018俄羅斯世界盃中,每兩個入球中就有一個來自死球或反擊。

  死球

  「As they say, ‘delivery is everything’」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「正如大家所言,‘傳遞就是一切’。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  「If I think back to my playing days, we didn’t spend a lot of time working on set pieces in training C maybe five or ten minutes。 Today, more attention is being paid to these things」

  MARCO VAN BASTEN

  「回想我踢球的時候,訓練中我們沒有花很多時間在死球上 ―― 也許五到十分鐘。今天,人們越來越注重這些。」

  馬可・範・雲巴士頓

  「It’s a special situation because you can push as many players as you want into the box and practise routines beforehand」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「這是一個特殊場景,因為你可以把儘可能多的球員放置在禁區內,並提前演練。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  Apart from penalties, the biggest change at this year’s tournament in terms of set plays concerned corners。 At the 2018 World Cup, one in every 29 corners led to a goal, whereas the figure was 61 at South Africa 2010 and 36 at Brazil 2014。 This trend of superior effectiveness continued through the knockout stage in Russia, where teams scored from one in every 31 corners compared to every 41 in Brazil。

  除了12碼之外,今年本屆世界盃最大的變化在角球。在2018世界盃上,每29個角球進一球,而2010南非為61個,2014巴西是36個。這種高效的趨勢一直延續至俄羅斯世界盃淘汰賽階段,與2014巴西世界盃41個角球進一球相比,俄羅斯世界盃則為31個。

  There were some good dead-ball specialists at the World Cup in Russia and some good headers of the ball too。 When you reach a stage when there’s not much difference between teams and defences are very well organised, then set plays become a vital weapon。

  在俄羅斯世界盃上有一些優秀的死球專家,還有一些善於頭槌的球員。當球隊之間沒有太大的差別同時防守組織也很好時,死球就成為一個重要的武器。

  A lot of the matches at this World Cup came down to dead-ball situations。 Eventual champions France offered a prime example of the importance of set plays at this tournament, notably in the semi-final against Belgium and then again in the title decider。 Indeed, their first two goals in the final came from set pieces: a free kick and a penalty。 When a match is tight, set plays can make all the difference and win trophies。

  本屆世界盃很多比賽的勝負都取決於死球。最終的冠軍法國隊就是很好的一個例子,特別是在4強對陣比利時時,然後再次在爭奪冠軍的決賽中。事實上,法國對在決賽中的前兩個入球均來自於死球:直接自由球和12碼。當比賽處於僵局時,死球會在比賽中起到意想不到的效果,影響比賽的走勢。

  Moreover, the number of penalties awarded in the group stage significantly increased from previous editions, partly due to the presence of VAR。

  此外,小組階段12碼的數量較之前顯著增加,部分原因在於VAR的使用。

  緊密防守

  「Teams hardly had a chance to shoot from outside the box」

  MARCO VAN BASTEN

  「球隊幾乎沒有機會從禁區外射門。」

  馬可・範・雲巴士頓

  「Space between the lines was practically non-existent at this World Cup」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「在本屆世界盃上,各線之間的空間實際上是不存在的。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  「It is not possible to defend in this manner without good communication」

  E女生ANUEL AMUNEKE

  「如果沒有良好的溝通,就不可能以這種緊湊的方式進行防守。」

  艾曼紐・阿穆涅克

  「Players have to be very clever and technically skilful to create chances」

  BORA MILUTINOVI?

  「球員必須非常聰明,技術嫻熟,善於創造機會。」

  博拉・米路天奴域

  Teams at this World Cup were more compact in defence, with a tournament average of 26m between a side’s deepest defender and highest attacker out of possession。 The amount of space available has been dramatically reduced, making it challenging to find openings。

  本屆世界盃的球隊在防守上更加緊湊,平均每支球隊最後一名防守球員和最前一名進攻球員之間的距離為26米。球隊可利用的空間已急劇縮小,尋找空當極具挑戰性。

  A result of tight, compact defending is a decrease in the number of shots from outside the penalty area。 This figure has dropped by a remarkable 32% since South Africa 2010。 Defending in this style requires efficient organisation, good teamwork, awareness and leadership, especially from the central defenders。

  緊湊、緊密防守的結果是從罰球區外的射門數量減少。自2010南非世界盃以來,這一數字下降了32%。這種防守方式需要有效的組織,良好的團隊合作、意識和領導力,尤其對中堅的要求更高。

  From an attacking perspective, the role of the traditional number 9 has become more challenging due to the limited space。 Quick ball circulation can help to create space and overcome compact units。

  從進攻的角度來看,傳統的9號位球員的將面臨更大的挑戰,因為空間有限。快速傳遞球有助於創造空間,打破緊湊防守隊形。

  邊後衛的作用

  「I still subscribe to the idea that full-backs are first and foremost defenders」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「我仍然認同邊後衛是首要防守者的想法看法。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  「Holding midfielders have such an important role as they give the team balance, allowing you to release both full-backs at the same time」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「擁有中場球員很重要,因為他們能平衡球隊,可同時釋放兩個邊後衛。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  Their first thought should always be to defend。 They must be defensively solid in 1v1 situations, strong in the tackle and effective at closing down opposition attackers to deny them space。 Full-backs perform a balancing act for the team。

  邊後衛的首要職責始終應該是防守。在1v1的情況下,邊後衛必須防守堅固,攔截能力強,並且可有效地對對方進攻球員施壓以壓縮空間。邊後衛對球隊起著平衡作用。

  However, they can be very useful in attack at the right moments。 Previously, the left- and right-sided midfielders almost exclusively occupied the wide areas, operating as wingers, but the game has evolved and this is no longer the case。 We typically only used to see one full-back joining in with attacks, whereas now both full-backs look to exploit the space down the flanks。

  然而,在正確的時刻邊後衛的進攻非常有用。此前,左邊和右邊中場幾乎佔據邊路,充當翼鋒,但是隨著現代足球比賽的演進,目前的情況已不再如此。過去我們通常只看見一個邊後衛參與進攻,而現在兩個邊後衛都在利用邊路參與進攻。

  Playing with a back three or five affects the defensive and attacking responsibilities and impact of the wide players。 Nevertheless, regardless of whether they are lining up in a 3-5-2 or a 5-3-2, they operate as wing-backs。 In general, fewer traditional overlaps are occurring due to teams’ dynamic interchanging of positions。

  3後衛或5後衛的打法將影響防守和進攻的職責,以及對邊路球員也會產生影響。然而,無論3-5-2陣型還是5-3-2陣型,他們都司職邊後衛。一般來說,由於球隊的動態位置互換,傳統的反套出現較少。

  組織者的重要性

  「You cannot manufacture a maestro」

  ANDY ROXBURGH

  「你無法製造大師。」

  安迪・洛斯伯

  「I love watching Modri? pull the strings in games; he’s a class act」

  BORA MILUTINOVI?

  「我喜歡看盧卡・摩迪(綽號「魔笛」)在比賽中的表演,他是一個出色的球員。」

  博拉・米路蒂諾維

  「Playmakers can impose themselves on games, speed up or slow down the tempo, switch play, create and make things happen」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「組織者可影響比賽,如加速或放慢比賽節奏、實施轉移打法、創造和讓意想不到的事情發生。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  With his amazing technique and tactical awareness, Modri? dictated the pace of games, defended, attacked and even scored goals。 He was so important for Croatia and you cannot imagine them without him in midfield。 His contribution was crucial in taking the team all the way to the final。

  憑藉自己精湛的技術和戰術意識,摩迪控制著比賽節奏、防守、進攻甚至入球。摩迪對克羅地亞非常重要,無法想像中場沒有他將會如何。摩迪從小組賽到決賽對球隊的貢獻至關重要。

  The previous three World Cup-winning teams all had prominent playmakers。 Andrea Pirlo was instrumental for Italy in 2006, we saw Andrés Iniesta and Xavi controlling the tempo of the game for Spain in 2010 and Bastian Schweinsteiger successfully played a similar role for Germany four years ago in Brazil。 We are eager to see who the next great playmakers to emerge will be and how they will stamp their mark on their teams。

  前三屆世界盃冠軍球隊都有出色的組織球員。2006年的意大利隊擁有安達・派路,2010年西班牙的恩尼斯達和沙維控制著比賽節奏,四年前在巴西,德國隊的巴斯蒂安・施魏恩斯泰格同樣成功地扮演了類似的角色。我們渴望看到下一個偉大球員的出現,渴望領略他給一支球隊所留下的烙印。

  守門員分析

  「The goalkeepers at this World Cup were really versatile」

  PASCAL ZUBERB?HLER

  (FIFA Goalkeeping Specialist)

  「本屆世界盃的守門員真是多才多藝。」

  帕斯卡爾・祖伯爾舒利亞

  (國際足協守門員專家)

  「Defending with so many bodies and so close to goal has its advantages and disadvantages。 For goalkeepers, it can be so crowded that they cannot see the ball」

  MARCO VAN BASTEN

  「防守球員眾多、距離門線更近的防守有著優勢和劣勢。對於守門員來說,由於門前太擁擠以至於看不到球。」

  馬可・範・雲巴士頓

  「Goalkeepers often used quick, short throws or passes to launch attacks」

  PASCAL ZUBERB?HLER

  「守門員經常使用快速、短距離的手發球或傳球來發動進攻。」

  帕斯卡爾・祖伯爾舒利亞

  On countless occasions, goalkeepers came out on top of one-on-one situations inside the penalty box through good positioning, timing and use of the 「X-block」 technique。

  守門員通過良好的選位、合理的時機和使用「X擋拆」技術,在禁區內的1v1中無數次的脫穎而出。

  It was obvious that certain teams had a clear plan to quickly transition when their goalkeeper had the ball, with their outfield players providing various options。 The goalkeeper nevertheless had a key role, having to display quick thinking and decision-making when playing the ball out。

  顯而易見,當守門員持球時某些球隊有清晰的計劃實施快速轉換,同時場上球員為守門員提供了不同的選擇。然而,守門員發揮了關鍵作用,在出球時必須做出快速的思考和決策。

  There was a higher number of penalties at this World Cup compared to previous editions and we saw some fantastic, game-changing saves, with 25% of spot kicks in the group stage either saved or missed。 We also witnessed some decisive goalkeeping performances in the penalty shoot-outs in the subsequent knockout rounds。

  本屆世界盃12碼的數量相比之前更多,我們可見一些精彩的、改變比賽的撲救,小組賽階段有25%的12碼被撲救或射失。在隨後的淘汰賽中,在12碼大戰中我們也見證了一些決定性的守門員表現。

  The previous section, on defending, noted how compactly and deeply teams defended at this World Cup。 As a result, goalkeepers’ vision will have been reduced and they will have had less time to react。 Deep defensive units also increase the risk of wicked deflections and a number of goals were conceded in this manner。

  前一節談到防守,注意到在本屆世界盃上球隊防守的深度和緊湊性。因此,守門員的視野將會降低,反應時間更少。較深的防守隊形也增加了折射的風險,很多入球都是這種方式。

  四強分析

  「The successful teams had a distinct way of playing based on their players and coaching philosophy。 They had a game plan and believed in it」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「基於球員特徵和教練員的足球哲學,成功的球隊有其獨特的方式。球隊有比賽計劃並且深信不疑。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  England:

  英格蘭:

  「They took initiative, playing out from the back」

  MARCO VAN BASTEN

  「他們積極主動,從後場發起組織。」

  馬可・範・雲巴士頓

  The only team at the World Cup whose full 23-man squad was based domestically, England had a very clear style of play and used a five-man midfield throughout the tournament。 They were very solid in defence and had two players who linked up well up front, where adidas Golden Boot winner Harry Kane showed his prowess at dead-ball situations。 They surpassed expectations and almost made it to the final。

  英格蘭是唯一一支所有球員都在本國踢球的球隊,具有鮮明的技戰術打法風格。在世界盃比賽中,英格蘭在中場安排了5名球員。他們擁有著堅固的防線,鋒線上的兩名球員互相之間配合十分默契,世界盃金靴獲得者哈利・簡尼在死球方面展現了出眾的實力。他們超越了外界對於他們的預期並且險些攻入決賽。

  Belgium:

  比利時:

  「They had a variety of attacking options」

  ANDY ROXBURGH

  「他們具有多樣化的進攻選擇。」

  安迪・洛斯伯

  Belgium were probably the most free-flowing team at the World Cup and were very technically gifted and incredibly versatile。 They looked to attack as a team and played very entertaining football, winning six of their seven matches。 Moreover, they did not concede too many goals in spite of their attacking approach, helped in no small part by having adidas Golden Glove winner Thibaut Courtois between the sticks。

  比利時可能是本屆世界盃踢得最為自由的球隊,球員在技術方面有著很高的天賦,並都非常有才華。他們崇尚整體進攻,打法賞心悅目,在全部7場比賽中贏得了6場勝利。儘管在進攻上很有能力,但是比利時也並無太多失球,這部分得益於獲得本屆世界盃金手套獎的門將高圖爾斯。

  The conclusion we can draw is that if you want to go far in a tournament, you need strength at both ends of the pitch。

  我們可從中可得出結論,如果想在比賽中走得更遠,球隊需要具備攻守均衡的優勢。

  Croatia:

  克羅地亞:

  「The midfielders had a strong mentality and the individual quality to dictate play」

  E女生ANUEL AMUNIKE

  「中場球員具備強大的心理素質和個人能力,決定著比賽結果。」

  艾曼紐・阿穆涅克

  Croatia had an incredible World Cup and came through three matches that went to extra time, with the leadership of adidas Golden Ball winner Luka Modri? proving instrumental。 The team showed mental toughness and their highly experienced players from top-level clubs were key to when they were a goal down, which they did no fewer than three times, showcasing impressive maturity and a powerful will to win along the way。

  由世界盃金球獎獲得者摩迪所率領的克羅地亞的世界盃之旅令人難以置信,他們有3場比賽都是通過加時賽分出的勝負。這支球隊展現了強大的心理素質,他們擁有著來自世界頂級球會經驗豐富的球員,這是他們入球的關鍵,這樣的場景出現了不止3次,一路走來他們的成熟度以及對於勝利的渴望令人印象深刻。

  France:

  法國:

  「They didn’t come to impress, they came to win」

  CARLOS ALBERTO PARREIRA

  「他們沒有給人留下深刻印象,但他們贏得比賽。」

  卡路士・阿爾伯托・彭利拿

  France did not win the trophy on the back of one performance: they won it over seven matches。 They turned up with a very clear philosophy, were well prepared and built on the experience of the EURO two years ago。 France played in a very balanced, compact manner and had an excellent side, with Paul Pogba and Antoine Griezmann launching attacks with real purpose and FIFA Young Player Award winner Kylian Mbappé wreaking havoc with his speed。 France did not rely on ball possession, but rather focused on getting into the opposition’s half as fast as they could。 And they had the players to do just that。

  法國隊之所以能夠登頂世界之巔,並非基於一場比賽:他們通過7場較量最終染指冠軍。他們一開始就呈現了很鮮明的戰術理念,賽前準備十分充分,兩年前的歐國盃也給法國積累了寶貴的經驗。法國隊的戰術十分平衡,他們踢球的方式很緊湊並且表現非常出色,普巴和基沙文是進攻的發動機,本屆世界盃的最佳新秀麥巴比用自己的速度肆虐對方的防線。法國隊的進攻不依靠控球率,他們更注重以最快的速度將進攻推進至對方半場,球員們也做到了這一點。

  Key findings in the report include:

  2018俄羅斯世界盃報告的主要結論包括:

   The team with the most average ball possession per match, Spain (69%), failed to progress from the round of 16, while champions France were 19th in the overall possession ranking。

  場均控球率最高的球隊 ― 西班牙(69%) ― 未能在進入16強,而冠軍法國隊控球率則排在第19位。

   Serbia were the hardest-running team at the tournament, covering an average of 113 km per game。 By contrast, France were 28th in this respect, averaging 101 km per match。

  塞爾維亞是本屆世界盃上最善跑動的球隊,場均跑動113公里;相比之下,法國隊跑動排名第28,場均101公里。

  Shooting efficiency from outside the penalty area improved dramatically: the average strike rate was a goal per 29 long-range attempts, compared to one in 42 at Brazil 2014。

  禁區外的射門效率有了很大的提高:平均29次遠射進一球,而2014巴西世界盃則為42次進一球。

  At the 2018 FIFA World Cup, one in every 29 corners led to a goal, whereas the figure was 61 at South Africa 2010 and 36 at Brazil 2014。 This trend of superior effectiveness continued through the knockout stage in Russia, where teams scored from one in every 31 corners compared to every 41 in Brazil。

  2018世界盃,每29個角球進一球,而2010南非為61個,2014巴西為36個。在2018俄羅斯世界盃淘汰賽階段,這種高效的趨勢持續了下來,每31個角球進一球,而2014巴西為41個。

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